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TIMELINE 1697-1750

First part: to the Accession of George II, 1727.
Second part: from the Accession of George II, 1727 to 1750


12/6. Death of George I. Accession of George II. Opposition to Walpole's ministry starts to form around Frederick, Prince of Wales.
11/2 - 16/6. Wager co-operated in defence of Gibraltar.
11/3. Royal Oak, 70, took N.S.del Rosario, 47.
Following the accession of George II, only one change was made "contrary to the will and representation of Sir Robert Walpole ... and, what was reckoned the strongest demonstration of his power, Lord Berkeley removed from the head of the Admiralty, and Lord Torrington appointed to succeed him." Lord Hervey's Memoirs, p.38.
Death of Isaac Newton.

29/1 First performance of The Beggar's Opera, by John Gay. Thornhill completes decoration of Moor Park, former seat of the ill-fated Duke of Monmouth; receives no more commissions.
8/2. Hosier's body is brought back from West Indies, buried with "great funeral pomp" at St Nicholas' Church, Deptford. (DNB).
6/3. Convention of Prado. End of war between Spain and England.
Publication of the second and revised edition of Thoughts on Trade, by Thomas Baston.
Death of Francis Place
Jonathan Tyers takes lease of Spring Gardens at Vauxhall.
May. Publication of first three books of The Dunciad, by Pope.
"Peter Moneyman" resident in Fish Yard, almost within the precincts of Westminster Hall.

Westminster Hall, said to be published by Henry Overton & J.Hoole, 1724

John Gay's Polly, a sequel to The Beggar's Opera is "commanded to be supprest".
Croxall's Select Collection of Novels, 1729. Monamy illustration engraved by Gerard van der Gucht. Christine Gerrard notes that in 1714 Croxall conformed "to his Protestant Whig loyalties", and that he "resurfaced in the 1730s as an opposition Whig and proved to be one of Walpole's most outspoken critics". See The Patriot Opposition to Walpole, p.168.
Hogarth marries Jane Thornhill on 23rd February. Soon afterwards he meets Jonathan Tyers, of Vauxhall Gardens. Paints Captain Woodes Rogers.
Publication of Newton's Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy with Theory of the Moon's Motion in English translation by Andrew Motte.
Last known reference to the last of the painting van de Veldes. If still in England, he must have left soon afterwards.

Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk, appointed Grand Master of English Freemasonry. A painting by Peter Monamy, dated 1730, is in Arundel Castle, seat of the Duke of Norfolk.

Duke of Norfolk, GM, a Roman Catholic, presented the sword of Gustavus Adolphus to Grand Lodge. Some investigation into how in the world, and why, the Duke managed to obtain this sword is required.
Thomas Coke, Lord Lovel, afterwards Lord Leicester, installed GM of Grand Lodge. This Coke, or Cook, is not to be confused with the Vice-Chamberlain, named as an owner of one of Kirkall's "Vandervelds", who died in 1728.

From Burke's Peerage, 1949.

First issue of the Gentleman's Magazine. Reports the death of 'Stephen Monomee' in Chelsea.
26/4. Daniel Defoe, 'Citizen of the Modern World', dies.
22/6. Performance at Drury Lane of the London Merchant, by George Lillo, 1693-1739.
Robert Jenkins, captain of a Scots merchant ship, the Rebecca, has his ear cut off by Spanish Guarda Costas in the West Indies. Captain Fandino gave the order (DNB), but the physical perpetrator (see below) was reported to be named Apolonko according to A Poem on the War in the West Indies by a Country Curate, published 1742. (BM 11631 d 56). "Died with both ears on his head?" "Ear ripped off in the pillory?" 19th century study conclusively verifies the truth of Jenkins' claim.
Philip Woodfine, in Britannia's Glories, p.1, dates the removal of Jenkins' ear to 9th April 1731, and discusses the significance, or otherwise, of this incident.

Tyers re-opens Gardens at Vauxhall; including a "Ridotto al Fresco" acting on advice from Hogarth. Includes paintings in the supper boxes.
Hogarth accompanies Samuel Scott on the Five Days Peregrination. This is just prior to Scott's adoption by the Walpole family and faction. George Lambert sub-contracts Scott to provide the shipping for 6 views of the East India Company's settlements. This work was commissioned by the East India Company, presumably the previous year, when the Faber mezzotint portrait of Monamy was issued. Lambert was reputedly influenced by Wootton, the rustic counterpart of Monamy.
3rd June. George II embarked on board the Caroline yacht, and sailed to Holland, returning on 26 September. Humpherus, II, p.145.

17/1. Death of George Byng, Viscount Torrington. Buried at Southill, Beds. Five Monamy paintings at Southill.
Burlington, arbiter of taste, breaks politically with Robert Walpole, after having been involved with Kent in decoration of Houghton Hall; but Kent continues in favour.
Walpole's Customs and Excise Bill. The opposition to Walpole's ministry intensified.
Mr Thomas Walker, picture collector and connoisseur, becomes an MP at age 69, and makes his first and only speech. Horace Walpole described him as a "kind of Toad-eater to Sir Robert Walpole".
Publication of The Rise and Fall of the Late Projected Excise, Impartially Consider'd, by a "Friend to the English Constitution". This defence of Walpole's Bill was probably authored by his elder brother, Horatio, no doubt an impartial friend. For The Craftsman's reaction to the demise of the Excise Bill, see here.
Publication of A Short History of Prime Ministers, by Eustace Budgell. He has some trenchant remarks about Prime Ministers, one eye fixed firmly on Walpole, of course.
March 8. James Bramston publishes The Man of Taste:

In curious paintings I'm exceeding nice,
And know their several beauties by their Price.
Auctions and Sales I constantly attend,
But chuse my pictures by a skilful friend.
Originals and copies much the same,
The picture's value is the painter's name.

Colony of Georgia founded by General Oglethorpe. Initially designed as a refuge for imprisoned debtors. Oglethorpe's determined attempts to make slavery illegal (anticipating Britons never, never, shall be slaves) met with no success, and he was eventually ousted from the colony by the nascent champions of all men's equality.

"From 1734 to 1736 the Opposition despaired and Walpole seemed at the height of his political career." See here.
William Pulteney publishes The Politicks on Both Sides, a 72 page pamphlet.

Death of Sir James Thornhill (1675/6-1734).

The picture detail at left has been said to represent the recently widowed Lady Thornhill, William Hogarth's mother-in-law, with her daughter Jane, standing, who was Hogarth's wife. Now, 2007, identified as the Duchess of Buckingham, with two friends. Painted 1734, or 1736. [Simon, Hogarth, France & British Art.]

Hogarth establishes Painting Academy in St Martin's Lane, with apparatus inherited from Thornhill. This survived until 1768, when the Royal Academy was founded, which took over much of the equipment.

Foundation of the Liberty or Rumpsteak Club "by a group of Whig Peers who had been snubbed by George II at his levées". See B.Allen, Francis Hayman, p.2.
Formation of the Dilettanti Society, a group of 40 or 50 rich, idle, snobbish, young men "founded in part for convivial purposes, in part for the encouragement of the arts". See Johnson's England, vol II, p.21. "The young gentlemen were strongly advised to buy objects of beauty and antiquity as a sound financial investment". The frivolous antics of this group must have greatly damaged the prospects for a truly native school of English painting.

May. George II went by barge from Whitehall Stairs to Lambeth, thence to Greenwich, sailing in the Caroline to Holland. Humpherus Vol II p.152.
15th June, Hogarth's Act of Copyright.
St Martin's Lane Academy re-activated, under Hogarth's initiative. See Nicolson, p.22.
Publication of first part of Liberty, by James Thomson.
The Sublime Society of Beefsteaks partly founded by Hogarth. See B.Allen, op.cit., p.2.

see doggett

"Thus ended the year 1735, famous for nothing remarkable in England but for the daily depredations of the Spaniards upon the English merchants, and no redress to be hoped for --- the English Ministry being held in every Court in Europe in the utmost contempt; and tho they have as great a Fleet now, as ever England had, in time of war ..... yet no use are made of all these to right the Merchants and retrieve ye glory of Old England." William Bulkeley of Brynddu, quoted in Ships and Seamen of Anglesey, by Aled Eames, p.134.

The Adventures of Eovaii, Princess of Ijaveo, an anti-Walpole piece by Eliza Haywood.
7/6. Newly re-decorated Vauxhall Gardens re-opened, with ticket admission. Sir Robert Walpole commissions overdoor decorations for his house from Samuel Scott, now aged 34. Scott did not join Hogarth, Hayman and Monamy in displaying paintings at Vauxhall. My belief is that two of Monamy's pictures, the Algerine Pirates and Sweet William's Farewell, must have been among the very first of the paintings displayed.
Death of Joseph Sympson Jnr. His mezzotint engraving after Monamy, The Burning Ship, must pre-date this year.
18/12. Returning from Helveotsluys, George II was forced back to the port by a severe storm lasting four days. Amusing account in Lord Hervey's Memoirs, p.214. See Kirkall's mezzotint of Monamy's painting.

Frederick Lewis, Prince of Wales, initiated into Freemasonry.
Publication of Leonidas by Richard Glover. The epic poem was taken as a poetical manifesto in the interest of the Walpole opposition, and went through four editions in two years. It was also translated into French, and published in Geneva in 1738.
Arrival of the portrait painter, van Loo, in London. "Vanloo, a French portrait painter, being told that the English were to be cajoled by any one who had a sufficient portion of assurance, came to this country, set his trumpeters to work, and by the assistance of puffing, monopolized all the people of fashion in the kingdom. Down went at once *, ---*, ---*, ---*, ---*, ---&c. &c. &c. painters who, before his arrival, were highly fashionable and eminent; but by this foreign interloper were driven into the greatest distress and poverty." Anecdotes of Hogarth, written by himself.

Papal Bull against Freemasonry. Jenkins is widely reported in numerous sources to have appeared before Parliament this year to obtain justice for his ear, but Woodfine, p.2, notes that he was at sea at this time.

3/4. Execution at York of Dick Turpin, notorious highwayman.
9/7. Edward Vernon (1684-1757) promoted to Vice-Admiral.
20/7. Walpole allows Vernon to embark for Porto Bello. He sets sail.
23/9. Capture of the San Joseph, a Spanish Carracca ship, by the Chester and Canterbury.
23/10. War declared against Spain, ie after the taking of the San Joseph. War later merges with War of Austrian Succession.
20/11 Captain Coram receives a Royal Charter for the Incorporation of the Foundling Hospital; an institution especially well-supported by the Navy.
21/11. Porto Bello captured by Admiral Vernon. See Vernon lifeline.
Publication of Spanish Insolence Corrected by English Bravery, allegedly by Captain Robert Jenkins, but presumably ghost-written. Mention of Vauxhall Gardens supper box paintings made in Scots Magazine articles in summer of 1739. (cf Rococo, V&A Exhibition 1984).

12/3. Report of Vernon's success reaches London. Indescribable jubilation. Map drawn by Philip Durell used as basis for several paintings of this event.
8/4. Capture of the Princesa, 64, by Captain Thomas Durell, in the Kent, the Lennox, 70, Captain C.Mayne, and Orford, Captain Lord Augustus Fitzroy.
3/5. Spanish Insolence Chastized. Fred Shantoon print published. Echoes Blake's legendary dictum.
1/8. Performance of the Masque of Alfred containing Rule Britannia, by James Thomson, with music by Dr Arne, before the Prince of Wales, at Cliveden.
18/9. Anson, in the Centurion, sails on voyage of circumnavigation. Hogarth presents his portrait of Captain Coram to the Foundling Hospital.
Reported death of Captain Philippe Durell, born 1676 (age 64?), of plague at Carthagena. It is unclear whether both Philip Durells were at Porto Bello, and there is some doubt about the existence of the elder.

Publication of Admiral Hosier's Ghost by Richard Glover.  

Publication of Satirical and Panegyrical Instructions to Mr. William Hogarth, Painter, on Admiral Vernon's taking of Porto Bello with Six Ships of War only. By A.Marvell, Junior ... London, printed for H.Goreham ... 1740.

This last in the long series of Advice to a Painter poems combines a satire on Walpole and the anti-war party with a panegyric on Admiral Vernon and his officers. The pseudonym indicates Marvell's political reputation during the late 17th and early 18th centuries.

"On the seventeenth of May, King George passed in his barge from Whitehall to Lambeth and from thence to Gravesend where he embarked on board the Caroline yacht for Holland; he continued frequently to pass and repass to and from his German dominions." Humpherus, Vol II, p.180.

23/3 Attack on Cartagena by Vernon. 1st April, Vernon reported his success back to London, but the rejoicing was followed by disillusionment. 17/5. Vernon's withdrawal from Cartagena. Death of Captain Thomas Durell (age 56), off Spithead. Doubt is now cast on this report by a statement that he died in 1754.

Fall from office of Sir Robert Walpole. Publication of:

20/4. Centurion took the Acapulco galleon N.S. de Covadonga, worth £400,000.
28/10. Four engravings, by Paul Fourdrinier and Remigius Parr after Monamy's Vauxhall Garden paintings, published by Thomas Bowles.

11/2. Matthews' engagement off Toulon.
4/10. Loss of the Victory, off the Caskets. Admiral Balchen and 1100 men lost: no survivors.







gunfire at 2.00 am, 4th october, 1744


18/3. Sir Robert Walpole dies.
17/6. (28/6 NS?) Capture of Louisbourg, Canada. Captain Philip Durell, Eltham, 40, was present with Warren at this occasion. Captain George Walker in action against French.
9/7. Lion, 50, fought a severe action with the French ship, Elizabeth, 50, escorting the Doutelle.
14/2. Anne Monamy marries Thomas Cornwall at St George's Chapel, Mayfair. This chapel was used for hasty marriages.

25/6. Peyton's action with La Bourdonnais off Fort St.David.
20-30/9. Lestock's expedition to L'Orient.
11/10. Nottingham, 60, Captain Philip Saumarez, took French ship Mars, 64, off Cape Clear.
21/2. Issue of the eleven Bowles prints, engraved by P.C.Canot after Monamy. 1745/6.
31/12. Monamy agrees to "present Performance … for Ornamenting the Hospital". (General Court Minutes; the Foundling Hospital).

3/5. Anson's victory over de la Jonquière off Finisterre. Philip Saumarez, Nottingham, present.
9/10. Glorioso, 74, taken by Russell, 80.
14/10. Sir Edward Hawke's victory over M.de l'Etenduère off Ushant. Philip Saumarez, Nottingham, 60, killed; also present was his cousin, Philip Durell, Gloucester, 50.
16/12. Mr Linnell, "a Carver in Long Acre", proposed to present the Foundling Hospital with a "curious carved frame for the picture painted by Mr Monamy". See Hayward & Kirkham, W & J Linnell.
20/1. Baptism of Peter Monamy Cornwall, son of Anne and Thomas Cornwall, at St Margaret's Westminster.

Labelled Capture of Porto Bello: unsigned painting attributed to Monamy
In fact, the Reduction of Port Louis, Cuba, 8 March 1748; possibly by Richard Paton, 1717-1791. Click.

31/1. Nottingham, 60, and Portland, 50, took Magnanime, 64.
8/3. Rear-Admiral Knowles reduced Port Louis, Hispaniola.
11/5. Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle. Louisbourg restored to France.
1/10. Knowles's victory off Havana.
18/10. Thanks of the Foundling Hospital Committee recorded to "Mr Monamy, Mr Whale and Mr Gainsborough." Samuel Wale, 1721?-1786, and Thomas Gainsborough, 1727-1788, were aged 27? and 21 at this date.

Fireworks celebrating "General Peace"


7/2. Burial of Peter Monamy at St Margaret's, Westminster. Longer notice recorded by George Vertue, sums up Monamy's life and work in a paragraph: a sort of obituary.

29/6. Mary Monamy marries Francis Swaine at All Hallows, London Wall.


27/1 Baptism of Anna Maria Swaine, daughter of Francis and Mary, at St Dunstan's, Stepney. This year should probably be corrected to 1751 (NS); although the child is described as one year old at baptism.
27/7. Peter Monamy's effects, "Household Furniture, Pictures, China", sold at auction, by distraint, ie forcibly in order to recover debts.
Date (?) of publication of two engravings: Nottingham takes Mars [Parr after Monamy/Swaine]; and Capture of the Capodonga [Parr after Swaine].

Back to Timeline up to the Accession of George II

timeline 1: 1652-1698       timeline 3: 1749-1755
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