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TIMELINE 1697-1750

First part: to the Accession of George II, 1727.
Second part: from the Accession of George II to 1750.


John Sturt and Bernard Lens set up a drawing school where apprentices and young engravers might take extra lessons.
(Clayton; p.13).

Right: mezzotint by Bernard Lens.      

End of war with France.

Completion of first Eddystone Lighthouse.

William Dampier explores NW coast of Australia. Henry Winstanley completes the construction of his second Eddystone lighthouse.

December. Publication of The True-Born Englishman, by Daniel Defoe. According to Frank H.Ellis, editor of Poems on Affairs of State, 1697-1704, this satire is one of the two most considerable poems to appear during these seven years. He quotes John Dunton, April 1701: "the finest piece of Wit that this Age has produc'd (except the Poem call'd The Dispensary").

Act of Settlement in favour of Hanoverian Succession.

Death of former Duke of York, ex-King James II.

His oil portrait by Nicholas de Largillière; spurious mezzotint frame by Bernard Lens, from above.  

30/1. Marriage of Anne Monamy, sister of Peter, to James Randell at Allhallows, London Wall.

19/3. Death of William III. Accession of Queen Anne. The Tory party comes to power.
23/3. George Byng's career receives a severe setback because of his loyalty to the Whig Admiral Russell, and he goes to sea as a Captain under Sir Cloudsley Shovell. (DNB).
10/10: Byng cruising in home waters, off Brest. Tried to join Rooke at attack on Vigo Bay 12/10, but missed the action.
Publication of the Shortest Way with Dissenters, by Defoe, an attack on the Tories' persecution of the Dissenters.
Publication of Theory of the Moon's Motion by Isaac Newton, "which will be of prodigious use in Navigation": comment by Edmond Halley.
20-24/8. Benbow's action with Du Casse.

Defoe sentenced to prison indefinitely; and to stand in the pillory. The London mob pelt him with flowers.
26-28/7. Dilkes destroyed French shipping at Granville.
26/11. Great Storm in the English Channel. 10,000 seamen lost (one third of the Navy); over 100 vessels wrecked or lost; some blown to Norway. Eddystone Lighthouse swept away, its architect inside. This hurricane left an indelible impression on all who lived through it; and the vogue for storm scenes in the earlier 18th century perhaps reflects the apocalyptic experience, which was not forgotten for a generation.

contemporary print (post 1707?): article by Ronald Faux in The Times, 17 Oct 1982

1/3. "Peter Monamy, servant to William Clark(e), free, 13s 4d. James Thornhill, servant to Thomas Highmore, free, 13s 4d." William Clarke, signpainter and decorator, was a prominent tradesman, and his painting embraced a much wider range of skills than we now associate with ordinary house decoration. Many signs were enormous, very elaborate and well-painted.
11/8: Francis Barlow, artist and painter-stainer described (by Evelyn) as "the famous", buried at St Margaret's, Westminster.
Publication of Opticks, by Isaac Newton. Death of Locke.
Harley, a moderate Tory, joins Ministry; and rescues Defoe from prison.
4/8. (4/7?) George Byng directs the cannonade and leads the advance squadron at the capture of Gibraltar.
13/8. Rooke's action with De Toulouse off Velez Malaga. Byng distinguishes himself in this battle, and is knighted by Queen Anne, 22/10. Action engraved after Isaac Sailmaker.
Birth of John Byng, ill-fated son of Admiral George Byng.

10/3. Leake destroyed or took five French ships of the line off Cabrita Point.
14/10. English fleet, under Sir Cloudesley Shovell, takes Barcelona.

Alexander Selkirk marooned by Dampier and Stradling on Juan Fernandez Island.
The Lighthouse Act: see here.

17/4: Margaret, daughter of Margaret and Peter Monamy, baptised at St Olave's Bermondsey. No marriage record found. The child's death is recorded on 7th May.
8/5. Relief of Barcelona. (Siege raised 22/5).
20/7. Bombardment of Alicante. Leake ordered Byng to bombard the city which was under siege by the French. Byng commanded an advance squadron under Leake.
Definitive edition of John Locke's An Essay Concerning Human Understanding.
John Rudyerd begins construction of his lighthouse on the Eddystone Rock.

19/1. Monamy marries Hannah Christopher at Allhallows, London Wall.
6/4. Death of Willem van de Velde, the Younger, aged 74, and burial in St James's, Piccadilly.
12/5. Act of Union with Scotland. Change of canton in ensign flags of navy.
25/8. Seth Jermy's defence of the Nightingale.
10/10. Destruction or capture of an English squadron by Du Guay Trouin and Fourbin.
23/10. Byng, in the Royal Anne, lucky to escape shipwreck off Scilly Isles. Shovell's ship, the Association, lost; Shovell killed by thief as he crawled on land.
Leonard Knyff (1650-1722) was holding auctions at his house in the corner of Old Palace Yard, Westminster, by 1695. One source says he left England after a sale in 1707. (? Although Horace Walpole says he died in Westminster in 1721: see here.)

Feb. The Whigs return to power. James Thornhill starts work at Greenwich Royal Hospital, designed by Wren as a memorial to Queen Mary II, wife of William III, and in memory of the battles of La Hogue and Barfleur and the defeat of James II.
1/3. Blockade of Dunkirk. By 15/3 Fourbin's attempt to land the Old Pretender, James III, at Edinburgh, was foiled. Sir George Byng, Admiral of the Blue, carried out the blockade.
28/5. Wager's action off Cartagena. Painted by Scott, circa 1746; ie 38 years later.
30/9. "Instructions from Prince George of Denmark to Sir George Byng, Commander-in-Chief of her Majesty's Fleet, to be employed in and about the Mediterranean." Tunstall, The Byng Papers, Vol II, p.281.
28/10. Death of Prince George, consort of Queen Anne.
30/10. Surrender of Port Mahon, Minorca; taken by Sir John Leake.
17/11. Death of Ludolf Bakhuysen in Amsterdam.
6/10. Monamy registers an apprentice, Henry Kirby, who was bound to him for seven years by indenture. Kirby was the son of Henry Kirby, citizen and gunmaker of London, and a member of the Company of Gunmakers.
15/12. Andrew Monamy, first child of Peter and Hannah, of the Minories, baptised at St Botolph's without Aldgate.
Richard Hogarth, William's father, confined to the Fleet prison for debt.

Captain Woodes Rogers, on a privateering expedition, rescues Alexander Selkirk, the original of Robinson Crusoe. Sir George Byng Commander-in-Chief in the Mediterranean.
Bishop Berkeley's New Theory of Vision.
Act naturalizing foreign Protestants; ie the Huguenots.

5/3. Baptism of Hannah Monamy, daughter of Peter and Hannah, of Red Lion Street, at St Mary's Whitechapel. (County Hall P93MRY 1/6). No further record of this daughter.
Fall of the Whig ministry. Harley and St John (Viscount Bolingbroke) form Tory ministry.
30/7. Kent, 70, took Superbe, 56, off the Lizard.
Abraham Mocatta admitted as a broker on the Royal Exchange.

From a pamphlet entitled A Dialogue Betwixt Whig and Tory, 1710. W.Denton
See History Today, November 2004, p 20

Robert Walpole (1676-1745), Secretary-at-War since 1708, expelled from the House of Commons on charges of embezzlement, and misappropriating public money. "Walpole published a strenuous vindication of himself while he lay in the Tower, but it is not satisfactory according to the salutary rigour of modern standards of administrative purity." (Morley, p 21).
Great Queen Street Academy of drawing and graphic arts set up under Kneller. (Clayton). Essay on Criticism published by Pope. English South Sea Company formed.
15/10. Edgar, 70, blew up at Spithead with most of her crew.
31/12. Duke of Marlborough dismissed from office.
Shaftesbury publishes Characteristics of Men, Manners, Opinions, Times. See here.

12/1. Peace Congress opened at Utrecht.
17/1. Robert Walpole, the future Prime Minister, committed to the Tower. After six months, on 8/7, he was released from this imprisonment.
11/8. Andrew Monamy, son of Peter and Hannah Monamy, baptised at St Mary's, Whitechapel. (PRC of LDS). No further record of this son. Peter and Hannah may have been living in Red Lion Street, although Peter would have kept his shop on London Bridge.
9/9. Richard Hogarth released from Fleet prison. His son William was now aged 15. He was apprenticed as an engraver in 1714. It is possible that from about 1714-1719 he was resident on London Bridge.

11/4. Peace of Utrecht. Spain cedes Gibraltar and Minorca to Britain as part of the peace conditions. H.Vale paints and dates his recording of the Relief of Barcelona. From internal evidence, this battle-plan appears to have been executed for Sir John Leake (1656-1720).
18/10. General election in Britain. The political situation was very confused. The Tories proclaimed themselves as standing for Church and Queen, describing the opposition as "Whigs, atheists, deists, Quakers and Republicans". Thornhill and Highmore voted Tory. But the opposition included several dissident Tories firmly opposed to commercial treaty with France. (Minutes of a Whig Club. London Record Society 1981).
April. First performance of Cato, by Joseph Addison, at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane. The play went through 8 editions in 1713 alone. "It deals with the death of Cato the Republican, who commits suicide rather than submit to the dictator Caesar ... owed its success partly to the political intentions imputed to it". (Oxford Companion to English Literature, 1985).

19/1. Byng deprived of office as Lord Commissioner of the Admiralty by Lord Strafford, because of adherence to the Whig cause. Byng contemplated retirement to the Cape of Good Hope, fearing he would no longer be able to serve his country "or save her from ruin".
Bolingbroke worked openly to secure the succession of James III, the Old Pretender. The Whigs formed a secret association sworn to resist by arms any attempt at a Stuart coup.
1/8. Death of Queen Anne. Whigs proclaimed the Elector of Hanover King, and instructed Lord Berkeley to bring him to England in the Peregrine Yacht. The Tories failed because so many of them could not face the Franco-Catholic influence implied by the return of James III.
Accession of George I, August 1st. Arrival in England on 17 Sept 1714. In fog. "His Majesty and the Prince were escorted with a squadron, commanded by the Earl of Berkeley, to Lower Hope, and on the eighteenth of September, the royal yacht got under way; his Majesty on passing Gravesend, was waited upon by the Mayor, &c., who presented to his Majesty the first address he received. He then entered his barge and landed at Greenwich about six in the evening, where he was received by the Lords of the Regency..." (Humpherus, p.98.) Numerous paintings by Monamy of this and similar events, some probably painted well afterwards. One version is dated 1724.
14/10. Edward Russell, Lord Orford, appointed First Lord of the Admiralty; Byng returns as Commissioner. The new Whig ministry includes Lord Orford; and Robert Walpole. (The Byng Papers. Ed, Brain Tunstall. Navy Records Society 1930.)

Sir James Thornhill: The Accession of George I. Painted Hall, Greenwich; completed 1727

1/8. First occasion of Doggett's Coat and Badge Race. Anniversary of George I's accession, and race held every year ever since. Thomas Doggett, Irish comedian and actor-manager, offers his Coat-and-Badge prize for a five-mile waterman's race up the Thames. Doggett, a "little lively sprat man" was a "staunch Revolution Whig". (Thomas Doggett Pictur'd. W.Leon, Company of Watermen and Lightermen, 1980). "Thomas Doggett, comedian, a great Whig in politics, then lately Joint Manager of Drury Lane Theatre with Wilks and Cibber, gave a coat and badge to be rowed for by six young watermen, in the first year of their freedom". (Origin & Progress of the Watermen's Company; Henry Humpherus, 1859)
Thornhill starts work on the Dome of St Paul's Cathedral. Publication of Linear Perspective by Dr Brooke Taylor. Publication of Elements of Astronomy, translated by Jean-Theophilus Desaguliers. After an early childhood in Guernsey, Desaguliers moved with his father to London, where he became an esteemed protégé of Isaac Newton. By 1715 he was established in Westminster, where he gave public lectures on mechanics, hydrostatics and optics. He was the virtual founder of C18th English Freemasonry.
7 July. George I embarked at Gravesend for Holland, to "protect his German dominions from the King of Sweden." Humpherus, Vol II, p.101.
6/9. Jacobite rising in Scotland. Old Pretender (James III) defeated at Preston and Sherriffmuir.

Thornhill appointed Governor of Kneller's painting academy.

Union of the English Freemasons. Grand Lodge inaugurated in Westminster.

2/8. Quadruple Alliance of Austria, England, Holland, France against Spain.
11/8. Battle of Cape Passaro. Byng completely destroys Spanish Navy. Byng receives warmly worded, personally written thanks of "votre bon amy, George R" for this action. 28/12. England declares war against Spain (4˝ months later!).
James Thornhill appointed History Painter in Ordinary to George I. He had started work on Greenwich Painted Hall in 1708; completed 1725 (1727?). Thornhill's masterpiece, the Painted Hall, tells of Britain's greatness, based on maritime power and the Protestant succession.

Daniel Defoe publishes Robinson Crusoe.
Desaguliers becomes Grand Master of English Freemasonry. (See Paulson for significance of Freemasonry).
A new Waterman's Hall was ordered to be built on the site of the old one.
William Kent (1685-1748) returns to England in December from studies in Italy. Paints as decorator initially, but takes up design from about 1725. Publication of Les Principes du Dessein by Gerard de Lairesse in Amsterdam.
Publication of Two Discourses by Jonathan Richardson: 1. An Essay on the whole Art of Criticism as it relates to Painting; 2. An Argument in behalf of the Science of a Connoisseur. These essays "set the tone for English artistic sensitivity during the remainder of the century. Richardson's approach ..... ran counter to William Hogarth's attitudes".

Publication of 1st edition of Mathematical Elements of Natural Philosophy, by William-James 's Gravesande, translated by J-T Desaguliers. Plates depict optical instruments, including a magic lantern.
17/2. Peace between Spain and Quadruple Alliance. Byng appointed Treasurer of Navy. In last three months of the year the South Sea Bubble bursts. Robert Walpole is recalled to office and stabilises financial situation.
Thornhill becomes first English artist to be knighted. Appointed Sergeant-Painter; and Master of the Painter-Stainer's Company. Numerous engravers had subscribed to Thornhill's Great Queen Street Academy, but in October this year John Vanderbank, with Cheron, broke away from Thornhill's Academy and formed a rival school in St Martin's Lane (Clayton p.13; and Nicolson, p.22).
Publication of Poems on Several Occasions, including Sweet William's Farewell, by John Gay. Robert Walpole among many subscribers. Paul Fourdrinier the elder, engraver, arrives in London from France. He died in 1758. His son, of the same name, was born in London and died in about 1769. But see Clayton on the identities of these two alleged engravers named Fourdrinier.

3rd April. Robert Walpole appointed First Lord of the Treasury and Chancellor of the Exchequer. Virtual Prime Minister until 1742. He had also held these posts 1712-1715. He restored public credit, after the South Sea Bubble.
Admiral Byng created Viscount Torrington and Baron Southill. Byng's portrait as Viscount Torrington painted by Jeremiah Davidson.
First known dated print, the Royal Anne, Byng's former flagship, by Thomas Baston.
Thomas Doggett, donor of Doggett's Coat & Badge trophy for Thames Watermen, "died on 22nd of September, 1721, endeared to Whigs and Watermen, and was buried in the Churchyard of St John the Evangelist, Eltham, Kent; having by his will, dated 10th September, 1721, hereinafter referred to, provided for the perpetual continuance of the match. The Garric Club possess an original portrait of him." Why the plaque dedicated to his memory, to be seen at the church in Eltham, says "he died a pauper", is something of a mystery. His will would not appear to be that of a pauper.
Church of St Martin's in the Fields started by James Gibbs.


A receipt for 12 prints by Elisha Kirkall, signed by Sir Hans Sloan, is dated 1722. Kirkall produced a series of mezzotints, depicting "Shipping" subjects, after "Vanderveld", but Sloan's set was not for shipping. Kirkall's 16 print offer, left, is probably three or four years later.

The dating is significant, as it coincides with the first evidence of Monamy's aspiration to match the reputation of the Dutchman. Kirkall must have included Cornelius, the Younger's son, under the "Vanderveld" umbrella. At least one print has a ship flying a post-1707 ensign.

In the 1722 General Election Captain Edward Vernon, born 1684, was elected to Parliament as member for Dunwich in Suffolk, and Penryn in Cornwall. "In Vernon's day there were probably more naval members than at any other time before or since". C.H.Hartmann, The Angry Admiral, 1953. Whether trade followed the flag or vice versa, this influx of naval members coincides opportunely with Monamy's move to Westminster.

"Peter Monyman" resident in St Margaret's Lane, Westminster.
3rd June: George I boarded the Caroline at Greenwich, sailed to Gravesend, and thence to Holland. Humpherus, Vol II, p.120.
Thomas Bowles published "Twenty-two prints of several of the capital ships of His Majesty's Royal Navy with a variety of other sea pieces after drawings of T.Baston". (Dictionary of Sea Painters of Britain and America). This is significant indication of the prevailing popular interest in the ship portrait. Baston's first prints are dated 1721.
"Robert Woodcock (c 1691-1728), a musician of ability who took to painting copies of Van de Velde in 1723, but died of the gout in 1728." (Ellis Waterhouse).
Thornhill elected Fellow of the Royal Society.
Birth of Charles Brooking.

A "Royal Occasion" painted by Monamy, signed and dated 1724.
Cartaret appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland; "pacifies" country.

3/9. Baptism of Anne Monamy (born 7/8), daughter of Peter & Hannah, at St Margaret's Church, Westminster. "Peter Monyman" resident in St Margaret's Lane.
1/5. Pragmatic Sanction: Austria agrees to aid Spain to recover Gibraltar.
George Byng, Lord Torrington, installed Knight of the Bath. Five paintings by Monamy executed for Lord Torrington at about this time: one of them dated 1725.
"Historians are right to see 1725 as marking a new point of departure in London politics. That year witnessed the beginnings of a broadly based opposition to Walpole's Election Act which sought to remodel the constitution of the City and circumscribe its democratic tendencies." Quoted from Resistance to Oligarchy: City Opposition, 1725-47, by Nicholas Rogers.

23/11. "At a Court held on 23 November 1726. Ordered that Mr Peter Monamy be admitted upon the livery in consideration of his having presented the Company with a valuable sea peice (sic) of his own painting and that the Master return Mr Monamy the thanks of this Court and that Mr Monamy be discharged paying his livery fine and all fees relating thereto". (Court Minutes. Painter-Stainer's Company). This event prompted the notice of George Vertue. It is noteworthy that Vertue has no conception at all of Monamy being a "follower, or pupil, of van de Velde" at this point in time. "Prentice to a Sign & house painter".
6/6 -14/12. Hosier's blockade of Porto Bello. Admiral Hosier had been despatched to the West Indies to intercept galleons and the Spanish trade fleet, without engaging in hostilities. During the next three "pestilential" years he and 4,000 seamen died of yellow fever.
Publication of Thomas Cooke's edition of The Works of Andrew Marvell Esq.
Publication of Gulliver's Travels, by Dean Swift.
Feb. Siege of Gibraltar: Brief war between England and Spain.
William O'Brien, Earl of Inchiquin, installed Grand Master of Freemasons' Grand Lodge.
William Pulteney, with Bolingbroke, started The Craftsman, which made sustained attacks on Walpole from then on: first issue, December 5, 1726.

3rd June: "The King (George I) set out from St James Palace about seven o'clock in the morning, and two hours afterwards embarked at Greenwich, on board the Caroline Yacht, and about eleven o'clock, that and the other yachts that attended his Majesty were all under sail, with little or no wind, but being towed by boats proceeded as far as Gravesend, where they continued until Monday the fifth in the morning, when the wind coming fair and fresh, they got under sail at ten o'clock, and at twelve o'clock, left the river for Hanover." Humpherus, p.127. George I died of a stroke on 11th June, during the journey.
12/6. Accession of George II. Opposition to Walpole's ministry starts to form around Frederick, Prince of Wales. Significant changes in the political climate.

Go to Part Two: from the Accession of George II

timeline 1: 1652-1698       timeline 3: 1749-1755
introduction       background
article 1981       article 1983
monamy website index

© Charles Harrison Wallace 2001, 2003
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