The Seafarer
the next frontier

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"An ingenious piece of machinery was contrived ... [it] ... drew up the particles of light to the moon and to the sun ... the rescued particles of light rose in a pillar of light, known as the column of glory, towards the moon ... [then they] ... were conducted from the moon to ... the paradise of light." From Mani and Manichaeism, Geo Widengren, 1965, p.55.

The Temple of Apollo

Henge 1770
See Stonehenge in 1770


For astonishing accounts of Viking age lens discoveries on Gotland: see Schmidt O, Wilms K, Lingelbach B. The Visby Lenses. in Optometry and Vision Science Vol. 76, No 9, pp 624-630.

Description in Swedish         Description in German

For possible accounts in English see: Ahlström, Otto "Swedish Vikings used Optical Lenses" in "The Optician" 1950; 459-469; and/or Enoch, Jay M. "Early lens use: lenses found in context with their original objects" in "Optometry and Vision Science", 1996, Vol.73:707-715. However, it seems that these lenses were not used for searching the sky.

With thanks to John Larsson

I must go where the wild goose goes
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© Charles Harrison-Wallace 2001/2009/2014/2016