Map from Clark Hall, Beowulf & the Fight at Finnsburg.
No Saxons ? Where are they ?
Try this website for Wuffings: it may try you.

Looking for Wuffings, Wulfings and Wylfings
and perhap even Ylfings

Most of those who have given the matter much, or any, thought think that Raedwald was a Wuffing. These thinkers (except for Müllenhoff, who thought they came from a South-Eastern Baltic land), think the Wuffings --- and they are given a variety of alternative spellings --- came from Sweden, and not Denmark. But their exact location is decidedly vague.

John Richard Clark Hall, whose Anglo-Saxon Dictionary and translation of Beowulf are among the better offerings in this academic field, provides a useful map in connection with Beowulf, as shown above. He settles for Sarrazin's location of the Ylfings, as shown below. I must look up what Sarrazin actually has to say.

An equally interesting item in Clark Hall's Index of Proper Names is his inclusion of Ingwine, "the divine root of ..... the Angles as well as the Danes". Is this a suggestion that the Angles are to be coupled with the East Danes, or in other words, inhabitants of what is now known as Skåne ? Have I misunderstood something ? Wikipedia has a comment: "It is tempting to speculate that the word Angle was derived from, or thought of as a pun on, the name of Ing." Nothing to do with a narrow hook --- which always seemed highly improbable..

Move on to Sam Newton's The Origins of Beowulf, and the Pre-Viking Kingdom of East Anglia, 1993. To the left is Sam's map, with interesting place-names boxed in red.

In The Origins Sam Newton has a challenging 26 pages, 105-131, on Wuffings and Wulfings. No doubt I haven't tried hard enough, but I still haven't discovered why he places the Wulfings in Västergötland, not Östergötland. But see below.

The Wuffing Arms: Sutton Hoo
from Mälaren or Torslunda ?

Another question is who could have occupied the large areas marked by my large question marks ?

Here is what appears to be the reasoning which makes Sam Newton place the Wulfings in either south-eastern Norway, or south-western Sweden:

This does not convince me at all. "Over the waters" could just as easily, in fact more easily, mean across the Sound, that is, in the direction of eastern Scedenig, south of the East Geats, in Östergötland. Furthermore, Sceaf, who is the paternal Moses of all these various peoples, arrived mysteriously in his little boat and came to land on Skåne, not on Denmark. Recorded here:

A recap, and remember, chroniclers of these times had no conception of Mercator's map projection: The home country of the Scandinavian colonists of Britain is called Old Angeln, and it is situated between the Saxons and the Goths.

So says Simeon of Durham. The country which lies "between the Saxons and the Goths" includes all Scania, and the town of Engelholm. And why not Ingelsträde and Ängelbeckstrand as well ? Subsequent historians have not thought to include Scedeland or Scedenig as part of Old Angeln. Burns mentions the existence of about 100 Swedish place-names incorporating the Angle-element.

essays and papers       main index
david burns       david burns 2
anglish & angles
home of the angles ?
the saxon shore two       the saxon shore three
scedeland       engelholm
gothonic or old scandinavian
commentary       annotation
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on to oppenheimer on language
gata and strada
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back to language of ancent britain
tower of babel
try ship four

My fellow man I do not care for
I often ask me what he's there for
The only answer I can find
Is reproduction of his kind
Ogden Nash

The Scots called the men recruited by the Romans "Sassenachs", and the Welsh called them "Saeson". Just another name --- they weren't necessarily "Saxons" but adventurous Goths and Angles. In any case, they spoke Old Scandinavian, not German. Old Scandinavian is the language attested in the oldest Scandinavian Elder Futhark inscriptions, allegedly spoken from ca. the 2nd to 8th centuries. It evolved into Anglo-Saxon, now doggedly and almost invariably called "Old English", and the dialects of what is equally doggedly called "Old Norse", at the beginning of the Viking Age about AD 800.

Quote: "(Swedish Sprachgefühl is) a silly article, the musings of somebody who likes both Beowulf and Swedish and decides they must be connected; you can find similarly inspired speculations on how Sumerian is the best guide to Turkish and all manner of other such."

Obey thy God, and never mind, O Muse
the laurels or the stings: make it thy rule
to be unstirred by praise as by abuse
and do not contradict the fool.

Pushkin - Nabokov


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