the roman empire's northern shore: carlisle to newcastle; 73 miles

The Saxon Shore
A Third Look

Who manned the Roman army ?

Hadrian's Wall: looking either east or west

There was a well documented practice of deliberately settling barbarian tribes (Franks became foederati in 358 AD under Emperor Julian) to strengthen Roman defences. Laeti was a term used in the late Roman Empire to denote communities of foreigners, or people from outside the Empire, permitted to settle on, and granted land in, imperial territory on condition that they provide recruits for the Roman military. Laeti sounds much like Leute. cf Isaac Taylor:

A Short Comparison, Burns, page 21.
P. 99, Canon Taylor, 1878 edition.

It grows morre obvious by the minute that the rank and file of the Roman legions did not consist of Romans, but foederati, and that these were all called Saxons by the put-upon and resentful natives, though few or none actually came from what is now called Saxony. There is a record of a garrison inspection in Vindolanda circa AD 95 where the quota of troops was meant to comprise 756 Dutch and Belgians, though 300 of those skiving Sassenachs went missing.

The Saxon name, and its derivatives, quite regardless of actual geographic tribal origin, appears in other languages as Sassenach Sasannach Sasunnach Sasann Saeson Sais Saesneg Seisnig Sawsnek Sawzneck Sasunn Sasainn Sassone Sasi Saksa Saksamaa Saksalaiset Sakslased Sakset Saks. Saxony didn't exist. See Canon Isaac Taylor. No tribe called itself Saxon.

Anyone who carried a seax was called a Saxon.

Isaac Taylor, Words and Places, 1878, p 98. See also p 54.

The bulk of these "Saxons", recruited for Britain by the Romans, were actually Angles, together with a number of Goths, known as Jutes. The "G" is either hard or soft. "The Angles, being the predominant settlers" along Britannia's Roman "Saxon" Shore, "subsequently received the name of Anglo-Saxons". Since they were mainly Angles, they spoke Anglish, which was NOT Old English. English is a language which didn't even begin to appear until well after 1066 AD. Anglish is thoroughly Scandinavian.

Check out the place-names provided by David Burns in Cumberland and Northumberland. Perhaps there are some Belgian and Dutch. Though northern England would be more suited to Angles and Geats, coming from what today is southern Sweden.

A sensible study of the Scandinavian languages might start with The Language of the Oldest Runic Inscriptions; A Linguistic and Historical-Philological Analysis, by .A.Makaev, first published in 1965. This work was translated into English from the original Russian by John Meredig, and published in 1996 by Kungl. Vitterhets Historia och Antikvitets Akademiens Handlingar, Filologisk-filosofiska serien 21. A prefatory note remarks: "Language barriers among linguists are more durable than the Iron Curtain or the Berlin Wall (Anatoly Liberman, "Scandinavian phonology", Scandinavian Studies 66: 232-3 [1994])."

"English" is a Scandinavian language. See here.

Scroll down: sometimes this works, sometimes it doesn't.
I said this at least ten years ago. See my website.
Charles Harrison-Wallace, November 2012

Womb of nations, ringed in red: Götaland included.
Can't leave out the Goths.

First word in the OED

from The Surgeon of Crowthorne, by Simon Winchester, p 131
Aa, or Å, means river in Swedish

The Saxon Vocabulary was Scandinavian      

Tools with the comely names,
Mattock and scythe and spade,
Couth and bitter as flames,
Clean, and bowed in the blade,--
A man and his tools make a man and his trade.

Breadth of the English shires,
Hummock and kame and mead,
Tang of the reeking byres,
Land of the English breed,--
A man and his land make a man and his creed.

Leisurely flocks and herds,
Cool-eyed cattle that come
Mildly to wonted words,
Swine that in orchards roam,--
A man and his beasts make a man and his home.

Children sturdy and flaxen
Shouting in brotherly strife,
Like the land they are Saxon,
Sons of a man and his wife,--
For a man and his loves make a man and his life.

Victoria Sackville-West calls the words she uses Saxon. She was not to know they were essentially Scandinavian

essays and papers       main index
david burns       david burns 2
saxon shore one       saxon shore two
saxon shore four
scedeland      engelholm
gothonic or old scandinavian
commentary       annotation
back to this version
on to oppenheimer on language
gata and strada      geats
hollander & gradon       frank, mere, sund
back to language of ancent britain
tower of babel
try ship four


mail here

All Men Must Die



Knight, Death and the Devil


© Charles Harrison-Wallace 2018
all rights reserved

main index