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Isaac Taylor, Words and Places, 1878. Also Saltuna, Ultuna, and several others.
By "Teutonic" Taylor perhaps means "Saxon" --- or Anglish ? Scrub "Germanic".
Anglo-Saxon colony ? In France ?


Götar, Jutes, Goths, Gauts
and Angles

October 2017. See Wikipedia for Gaut. Meanwhile, this page arises mainly from my having acquired Schütte's study of The Geats of Beowulf, as well as a paper by Pontus Fahlbeck, entitled Beowulfskvädet som källa for nordisk fornhistoria, a topic which he apparently first addressed in 1884, and revived in 1913. Gudmund Schütte's paper was published in The Journal of English and Germanic Philology, Vol. 11, No. 4 (Oct., 1912), pp. 574-602, by the University of Illinois Press. It is available here. At this point I feel I will have to go back to Klaeber, to see what he has to say about the Geats. It is also reasonably worth noting that, in Modern Swedish at least, if "G" is followed by "a, o, u, å" its pronunciation is hard; if followed by "e, i, ä, ö, y" its pronunciation is soft. It is not unreasonable to assume that Anglish Geat was sometimes pronounced with a soft G, approximating to Jute.

A recap: Beowulf is much concerned with the deeds of the Danes and the Geats. If we disregard the fascinating and seemingly endless scholarly wrangling over the exact identity of the Geats, it is reasonable to assume that they were a people who occupied the territory called Swedish Götaland, an area now encompassing the southern third of modern Sweden. What might be regarded as the core of this tribal or cultic sphere, in the first centuries AD, would have been located along the west coast of modern Sweden, where Gothenburg faces Britain across the North Sea, and extending inland to include the vast Lake Vänern. Depending on the niceties of distinction one cares to draw between the Geats and similarly named peoples, the territory could be enlarged to take in the Baltic island of modern Gotland, and the modern Danish peninsula of Jutland, also referred to by King Alfred as (another) Gotland, --- as pointed out by Schütte. It is now necessary to ask why they all spoke of their language as englisc, named after the Angles, rather than after the Saxons, so-called, or the Jutes, Geats, Goths.

Or the Geti, Goti, Geta, [Gotica, Jordanes], Gautas, Eots, Eotan, Gothus, Jutus, Yte, Gethus, Geatte, Euthiones, Eucii, Eodoses, Eudosioi, Edusii, Eudure, to include the band of brothers listed by Schütte. I feel exhausted. But I should also mention that when Schütte speaks of Göts he means Götar. Clark Hall includes Eotens on his 1911 map. Note that he places the Wylfings, or Wulfings or Wuffings, ancestors of Wuffa, patriarchal King of East Anglia, north of Blekinge, in Swedish Småland. Who knows why? Tell me if you know. As a matter of fact, you needn't bother, since Wikipedia tells us. The sagas relate that the Wulfings ruled the Geatish kingdom of the Eastern Geats, which may at that time have included Småland, and Gotland. The line between Anglians (Angles) and Goths is distinctly blurred. See The Sutton Hoo Ship Burial, 1968, R.L.S.Bruce-Mitford, pp 69-75, The Swedish Connection.

I feel a need to draw breath here, and list some definite conclusions. I may be repeating myself, but here goes:

1. Saxons, as inhabitants of present-day Northern Germany, are not mentioned until 555 AD, according to Wikipedia. However, Wikipedia's account might be more accurate. It includes an odd little map of the "Saxon" domains: see A below.

One wonders why the mapmaker has coloured an area pink, stretching all the way up to Danish Jutland, and all the way along the north sea coast to Holland, and called it the land of the Saxons. But let it pass, since the North Sea is French. The real conclusion is that "Saxon", until about C6th AD, was merely a loose term applied to anyone who flourished a seax.

2. On the right we have map B. Here I must make my contentious contention. Which is that the five southern provinces of what is now modern Sweden, namely Skåne, Småland, Halland, Blekinge and Öland, comprise the land of the Angles, lying between the so-called Saxons, and the Goths. This area is big enough to supply sufficient feoderati as recruits to Britain, pre-400 AD. Moreover, apart from Skåne, it is not a fruitful area: its inhabitants might find other lands more pleasantly green.

3. The Venerable Bede, 673 - 735 AD. How do we tackle him, and his commentators ? First, perhaps, by noting that he was not even born until 118 years after the earliest firm recording of the Saxons as North Germans in 555 AD. Any notice by him of the "Saxons", or Anglo-Saxons for that matter, is therefore conditional on that fact. Bearing in mind that it is today only 90 years since the 1928 promotion of that popular but specious term "Old English". No Battenbergs, or Saxe-Coburg-Gothas were allowed after 1917 ! Bede seems surprisingly interested in the pre-Anglian inhabitants of Britain. The Anglians were purely Scandinavian, but Bede appears strongly to defend the Brythons. Also, writing in the late 600s and early 700s, he consistently refers to his own [?] people as "Saxons". I must study him with more diligence. Although evidently of noble Anglian birth, the Catholic church grabbed and secured him before the age of seven, as is its wont.

Bede was so prolific he needs to be approached circumspectly. Meanwhile, here is an impromptu version of the Anglish death song attributed to him: Before that fateful voyage, man's advised concern should be none other than to consider how his soul will be weighed at his death, according to his past deeds, whether good or evil. Death was ever held near the anguished Anglish mind. A Coptic and Egyptian legacy. The pagan Northerner sought immortality in the memory of posterity. Sentiments repeated, but replaced in The Seafarer, about which much drivel has been and still is written. But I need notice of Bede: a headache in store. He does not agree with me, and perhaps he has the advantage. Still, I don't think he had recourse to DNA in his tribal histories of the Angles, Brythons, Saxons.

These investigators: Taylor, Lubbock, Schütte, Fahlbeck, Stjerna, Chambers, Clark Hall, all wrote pre-Sutton Hoo's 1939 excavation, which makes their insights all the more compelling. Repeat: no Saxons pre-600 AD; the Saxon shore consisting largely of Angles and Goths; whose language was Anglish, or Old Scandinavian, imported mainly from Southern Sweden. It did not become English until the emergence of the Pearl poet, in the 14th century. The Pearl Poet began writing during a time that recognisable English literature and language were beginning to take hold. This new literature and language drew upon three older traditions which were Anglish, Celtic, and French and Latin, none of which were "Old English". See Wikipedia.

Much of what is said here has already been said by David Burns.
No harm in saying everything twice. The third time you'll know it is true.

No harm in repeating Isaac Taylor.

A partisan is a pike, or long-handled spear. Cassell Concise

A confusing, but interesting, article appeared in the Daily Mail, 28 July 2016, and is available here. This states that on average the British are only 37% British, while their remaining genes come from European ancestors in continental places like Scandinavia, Spain and Greece. This somewhat puzzling assertion is partly clarified when it becomes apparent that by "British" the writer means "Anglo-Saxon". The question then arises of where the Angles and Saxons came from, if not from continental places like Scandinavia and Saxony. Except that Saxony didn't begin to exist until about 600 AD. So the search for the genetic origins of the "British" boils down to the discovery that 37% of them - 40% in Yorkshire - are Angles, ie Scandinavian. And Angles were mainly from what is now Sweden (although Denmark and Norway are always invoked). QED.

Anglo-Saxon, that is Angle, Engle or English Saxon, is the language of the Platt, Low, or North part of Germany, --- brought into this country by the Jutes, Angles and Saxons, --- and modified and written in England.
The Rev. Joseph Bosworth, D.D. F.R.S. F.S.A.
Dr. Phil. of Leyden, etc.
Neither he, nor Bede nor Simeon, seem aware that "Saxons" were not a people; and that Angles hailed from Sweden, not just a small place in Denmark.
The Platt, Low or North part of Germany contains virtually no "Saxon" place-names..

A Curiosity

Could East Anglia's kinship with Sweden be any closer ?

See also: Wikipedia, East Anglia, or here.   *** *** ***     *** *** ***     *** *** ***   See also: Kingdom of East Anglia, flags

"Ängel occurs almost 100 times in Sweden". See Burns.

"in fact all languages in the British Isles are imported"

1999: Swedish Sprachgefühl for Anglo-Saxon
2013: More Sprachgefühl for Anglo-Saxon

From Pre-Historic Times, 1865, by Sir John Lubbock. Sir John was jesting, of course.
But he probably knew that Dan and Nori were sons of the Swedish King.

Antikvariskt Tidskrift för Sverige, 1908 ? Fasta fornlämningar i Beovulf. Knut Stjerna.
See also: Essays on Beowulf, 1912. Knut Stjerna.Translated by J.R.Clark Hall, 1855-1931

John Clark Hall's verdict on Knut Stjerna's view of Beowulf

JCH writes pre-Sutton Hoo.
At right: faulty usage of "English" has been changed to "Angles".
What does Campbell mean by "their Saxon homeland" ?
What "zeal" is he talking about ?


From The Anglo-Saxons, 1982, edited by James Campbell.

"That the small neck of land, with few villages, round Angeln [in Denmark], with both its name and the majority of its place-names, should then become unpopulated, seems far-fetched, especially in view of the thousands of places in Sweden which are admirably placed [for Anglian origin]." David Burns.

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under permanent reconstruction.

essays and papers
gothonic or old scandinavian
gata and strada    bede
saxon shore: one, two, three
journey's jargon

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