6. They that trust in their wealth and boast themselves in the multitude of their riches; 7. None of them can by any means redeem his brother, nor give to God a ransom for him; 17. When he dieth he shall carry nothing away; his glory shall not descend after him. Psalm 49, AV.
1. The heavens declare the glory of God; and the firmament sheweth his handywork. Psalm 19, AV.
This goodly frame the earth ... this most excellent canopy the air, look you, this brave o'erhanging firmament, this majestical roof fretted with golden fire. William Shakespeare, Hamlet, c 1601.
Oh let our Voice his Praise exalt,/Till it arrive at Heavens Vault. Andrew Marvell, Bermudas, 1681.
The spacious firmament on high/And all the blue ethereal sky/And spangled heavens, a shining frame/Their great Original proclaim. Joseph Addison, 1672-1719.
Various episodes are recorded in the sagas in which gold and silver is buried in the ground. Gurevitj refers, for example, to the famous Icelandic poet Egill Skalla-Grimsson, who had been given several chests of silver by the King of England. Together with a couple of slaves he took the chests to a secret place on his land, buried them and killed the slaves. Gurevitj mentions several examples of treasures of gold and silver which were buried in the ground or thrown into the sea. The written accounts however give no indication of the treasures being recovered, and Gurevitj therefore concludes that the evidence is that the Northmen kept their wealth in the ground in order to preserve it, so that they could bring it with them to the world of the dead in the same way as it was necessary to be accompanied by weapons, equipment, ships, carts, horses, dogs and so on. In contrast to the grave goods, which were first provided at the funeral, a man did what he could during his life to make sure that he would have some part of his worldly wealth with him in the life to come either by burying it himself or sinking it in open water. (Gurevitj 1970, pp. 85-86: A.J.Gurevitj, Feodalismens Uppkomst i Västeuropa, Borås, Swedish trans, 1979.) Lotte Hedeager, Iron Age Societies, Blackwell 1992. p.73.
ne mæg þære sawle: When the Anglo-Saxon means "soul", he says sawle, not hyge.
þe biþ synna ful: synna ful: Blackie's Compact Etymological Dictionary: sin: OE synn, Cf. MDu sonde, OS sunde, Ger sünde. Poss. cogn. with L. sons, guilty.
John Ayto, Dictionary of Word Origins: ... from a prehistoric Germanic *sunj, a close relative of which produced German sünde, Dutch zonde, and Swedish and Danish synd "sin". ... it has been linked with Latin sons "guilty", and also with English sooth "truth" and Sanskrit satya- "real, true", as if its ancestral meaning were "(truly) guilty".
W.W.Skeat, Concise Etymological Dictionary of the English Language: AS synn (sinn, senn); Icel. synd synð; OHG suntea. ... AS synn represents a Teut. type *sundjã, fem., or ... an Idg. type *s@ntj; where *s@nt is the weak grade of sent: sont. Allied to L. sons (stem sont-), guilty, sinful, orig. "real". (Language regards the guilty man as the "man who it was;" Curtius.) Cf Ion.Gk. e-ont... being; pres. pt. of eimi, I am. [eimi is the title of a book by e e cummings.]
E.Wessén, Våra Ord: "synd": ... till ett adj. med bet. "sann, skyldig", egentl. "varande" (ie "being"), besläktat med "sann" (ie "true"); äldst på runstenen U 323 Sölna: forgefi hanum sakar ok syndir "förlåte honom skulder och synder". The interesting point is whether the emphasis is finally on "real" rather than "true". Skeat's mention of "Sanskrit satya- 'real, true', as if its ancestral meaning were '(truly) guilty'" seems to beg this question. It would be attractive if satya- was more akin to "real" than "true"; since the implication would be that sin = reality; ie it would imply that existence (reality itself) was sinful. Sin would vanish at death, with the flesh, when the soul escapes the "body's vest", the flæschoma. Here, the soul can remain synna ful across the divide. Ger. wir sind.
gold to geoce for godes egsan:
þonne he hit ær hydeð: another pun on ær
þenden he her leofað:
micel biþ se meotudes egsa:
forþon: See SSAS.
hi seo molde oncyrreð:
stiþe grundas: firmament.
eorþan sceatas: earth's vaults. See SSAS.
ond uprodor: and vapours.